APA Citation Examples

Based on APA Publication Manual, 6th Edition (2009) and Style Guide to Electronic References (2012)

REFERENCE LIST EXAMPLES

Need More Help?

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the APA's official citation guide and provides a more detailed explanation of how to use APA style. The manual is unfortunately not available online, but reference copies are available in all 16 University of Maryland libraries.

The APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012) focuses solely on the citing of electronic resources and includes a wide variety of citation examples.

You can also ask a librarian for help with a citation-related question.


Some General Rules

In-Text Citations (Publication Manual, pp. 174-179)


What You Are Citing

In-Text Citation

The entire work

(Smith, 2004)

A specific page

(Smith, 2004, p. 39)

If the author's name is included in the text of the sentence where the citation takes place

Smith (2004, p. 39) claims that...

Use only the date or date and page number.

An online article with no page numbers.

(Myers, 2000, para. 5)

(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1)

Use abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number you are citing. When possible, specify a section of the article.

Citing multiple authors

See Authors, below.



Authors (Publication Manual, pp. 181-183)

One author

Example:
Reference List Citation

Example:
In-Text Citation

Courtois, C. A. (2004).

(Courtois, 2004)



Two authors

Example:
Reference List Citation

Example:
In-Text Citation

Kelley, P. C., & Chang, P. L. (2007).

(Kelley & Chang, 2007)



Three to five authors

Example:
Reference List Citation

Example:
In-Text Citation

Hughes, J. C., Brestan, E. V., & Valle, L. A. (2004).

First citation:
(Hughes, Brestan, & Valle, 2004)

Subsequent citations:
(Hughes et al., 2004)

When a work has more than 2 authors, subsequent in-text citations consist of the first author's name followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the date.



Six or seven authors

Example:
Reference List Citation

Example:
In-Text Citation

Phelps, B. R., Lima, M., Gomez, J., MacArthur, R. T., Gansu, L., & Nehru, M. (2004).

First citation:
(Phelps et al., 2004)

Subsequent citations:
(Phelps et al., 2004)

When a work has 6-7 authors, in-text citations consist of the first author's name followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the date.



Eight or more authors

Example:
Reference List Citation

Example:
In-Text Citation

Carter, A., Dougherty, S., Addington, M., Stanley, R., Stanley, C., Schuffler, G., . . . Smyrna, B. F. (2004).

When there are eight or more authors, include the first 6 authors' names followed by an ellipsis (. . .) and the final author's name.

First citation:
(Carter et al., 2004)

Subsequent citations:
(Carter et al., 2004)

When a work has 8 or more authors, in-text citations consist of the first author's name followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the date.



Group author

Example:
Reference List Citation

Example:
In-Text Citation

American Dietetic Association. (1999).

First citation:
(American Dietetic Association [ADA], 1999)

Subsequent citations:
(ADA, 1999)



No authors listed

Example:
Reference List Citation

Example:
In-Text Citation

None to claim their bones: Relics of an old Brooklyn graveyard. (1888, April 12). New York Times, pp. 3-4. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

List the source by title in your reference list. Alphabetize reference list entries beginning with a title using the primary word of the title (excluding a, an, and the).

("None to Claim Their Bones," 1888)

In cases where the title contains a colon, use only the text before the colon in your in-text citation.



Titles (Publication Manual, pp. 185-187)

Capitalization: For all sources other than periodicals (that is, newspapers, magazines, and scholarly journals), capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns only. Do not capitalize the rest (see example below).

All major words in periodical titles should be capitalized (for example, Psychology Today, Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved.)

Italics: Titles are italicized for the following items:

  • Books
  • E-Books
  • Periodicals
  • Web sites
  • Dissertations/theses
  • Reports/technical papers
  • Works of art

Source

Example

Journal article title

Freud's Vienna revisited.

Book title

Student cheating and plagiarism in the Internet era: A wake-up call.



Volume & Issue Numbers (Publication Manual, p. 186)

APA does not use "Volume", "Vol.", "v.", "Issue" or related terms. Use italics for the volume number.

Source

Example

Magazine and journal volume and issue number formatting

12(4)

12 is the volume number (in italics) and 4 is the issue number.

If each issue of a journal begins on page 1, give the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number, as above.



Page Numbers (Publication Manual, pp. 178, 200)


Issue

What To Do

When to use "p." and "pp."

Use "p." and "pp." to indicate page numbers when citing newspaper articles and book chapters. Omit them when citing journal and magazine articles. Follow the examples in this guide.

Online periodical where page numbers are not given

National Geographic, 300(2).

300 is the volume number. Follow the issue number of the magazine or journal with a period.



Undated Sources (Publication Manual, p. 185)

Use "(n.d.)" (for "no date") in your citation.

Reference List Citation

In-Text Citation

Knowles, A. (n.d.). House of dust [Collage]. Retrieved from Oxford Art Online database.

(Knowles, n.d.)



Citing a Source within a Source (Publication Manual, p. 178)

Scenario: You read a 2007 article by Linhares and Brum that cites an earlier article, by Frederick. You want to cite Frederick's article, but you have not read Frederick's article itself.

Reference List Citation

In-Text Citation

Linhares, A., & Brum, P. (2007). Understanding our understanding of strategic scenarios: What role do chunks play? Cognitive Science, 31(6), 989-1007. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1080/03640210701703725

Your Reference list will contain the article you read, by Linhares and Brum. Your Reference list will NOT contain a citation for Frederick's article.

Frederick's study (as cited in Linhares & Brum, 2007) found that...

Your in-text citation gives credit to Frederick and shows the source in which you found Frederick's ideas.



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Articles

Academic Journals (Publication Manual, pp. 198-199; Style Guide, p. 12)


Source

Reference List Citation

Library database with DOI

Sagarin, B. J., & Lawler-Sagarin, K. A. (2005). Critically evaluating competing theories: An exercise based on the Kitty Genovese murder. Teaching of Psychology, 32(3), 167–169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15328023top3203_8

What is a DOI?
Some library databases, such as PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for individual articles. A DOI is a unique identifying number for an article. In the database record for an article, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "http://dx.doi.org/":

Digital Object Identifier

This link will allow a reader to link to doi.org for more information about the article.

However, the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012, p. 5) notes that it is still acceptable to use the older style of DOI format in a citation, for example:

Amidzic, O., Riehle, H. J., & Elbert, T. (2006). Toward a psychophysiology of expertise: Focal magnetic gamma bursts as a signature of memory chunks and the aptitude of chess players. Journal of Psychophysiology, 20(4), 253-258. doi:10.1027/0269-8803.20.4.253

Library database without DOI

Reitzes, D. C., & Mutran, E. J. (2004). The transition to retirement: Stages and factors that influence retirement adjustment. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 59(1), 63-84. Retrieved from http://www.baywood.com/journals/PreviewJournals.asp?Id=0091-4150

No DOI? Find the journal's homepage.
Do a Web search to find the address of the homepage of the journal that published the article and include it in your citation (example). Please be aware, however, that the full text of articles may not actually be available at the journal homepage.

Cannot find the journal's homepage?
In this case, do a Web search for the name of the database you are using (for example, "JSTOR" or "Business Source Complete") and use the address of its homepage.

Free Web

Giancola, P. R. (2004). Executive functioning and alcohol-related aggression. American Psychologist, 59(2), 5-7. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/journals/amp/

In print

Hughes, J. C., Brestan, E. V., & Valle, L. A. (2004). Problem-solving interactions between mothers and children. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 26(1), 1-16.

More info



Magazines:

-Daily or Weekly Magazines (Publication Manual, p. 200; Style Guide, pp. 13-14)

      

Source

Reference List Citation

Library database with DOI

Jackson, P. (2011, March 1). Navy Yard Hill and the founding of Washington City. Capitol Hill Historian, 2, 5-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/20113

What is a DOI?
Some library databases, such as Academic Search Complete and PsycINFO, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for individual articles. A DOI is a unique identifying number for an article. In the database record for an article, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "http://dx.doi.org/":

Digital Object Identifier

This link will allow a reader to link to doi.org for more information about the article.

However, the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012, p. 5) notes that it is still acceptable to use the older style of DOI format in a citation, for example:

Janney, K. (2006, May). Crow rookeries and urban toponyms in the United States. Corvid, 10(1), 2-6. doi:11.1111/0224-8900.21.4.260

Library database without DOI

Borowitz, A. (2004, November 15). Pavlov's brother. New Yorker, 80(35), 63-66. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/

No DOI? Find the magazine's homepage.
Do a Web search (using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo!) to find the address of the homepage of the journal that published the article and include it in your citation (example). Please be aware, however, that the full text of articles may not actually be available at the journal homepage.

Cannot find the magazine's homepage?
In this case, do a Web search (using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo!) for the name of the database you are using (for example, "JSTOR" or "Business Source Complete") and use the address of its homepage.

Free Web

Springen, K. (2005, January 17). Artful aging. Newsweek, 145(3), 25-27. Retrieved from http://www.newsweek.com/

In print

Borowitz, A. (2004, November 15). Pavlov's brother. New Yorker, 80(35), 63-66.

More info

 

-Monthly Magazines (Publication Manual, p. 200; Style Guide, pp. 13-14)


Source

Reference List Citation

Library database with DOI

Niu, J. (2012, March-April). An overview of web archiving. D-Lib, 18(3-4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1045/march2012-niu1

What is a DOI?
Some library databases, such as Academic Search Complete and PsycINFO, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for individual articles. A DOI is a unique identifying number for an article. In the database record for an article, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "http://dx.doi.org/":

Digital Object Identifier

This link will allow a reader to link to doi.org for more information about the article.

However, the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012, p. 5) notes that it is still acceptable to use the older style of DOI format in a citation, for example:

Rostok, M. (2011, August 1). Android malware on the rise. eWeek, 2(6), 11. doi:11.3267/2553/8911.324.260

Library database without DOI

Norman, A. D. (1988, March). Infuriating by design. Psychology Today, 22(3), 52-56. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/

No DOI? Find the magazine's homepage.
Do a Web search (using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo!) to find the address of the homepage of the journal that published the article and include it in your citation (example). Please be aware, however, that the full text of articles may not actually be available at the journal homepage.

Cannot find the magazine's homepage?
In this case, do a Web search (using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo!) for the name of the database you are using (for example, "JSTOR" or "Business Source Complete") and use the address of its homepage.

Free Web

Gelb, N. (2003, May). Winter of discontent. Smithsonian, 34(2), 50-55. Retrieved from http://www.smithsonianmagazine.com/

In print

Ives, F., & Lydon, J. (2005, January). Freud's Vienna revisited. Discover, 26(2), 16-17.

More info


Tip:

  • When an issue of a magazine covers several months, the name of the first and last month in the range should be given in the citation, separated by a dash, for example: "(1993, June-July)".

Newspapers (Publication Manual, pp. 200-201; Style Guide, p. 14)


Source

Reference List Citation

Library database

Brown, P. L. (1999, September 5). Tiffany glass and other tales from the crypt. The New York Times, pp. 1, 5. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

Do a Web search (using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo!) for the newspaper homepage and use the homepage URL after the words "Retrieved from".

Free Web

Foreman, J. (2003, August 12). Allston gothic. The Boston Globe. Retrieved from http://www.boston.com/

In print

Brown, P. L. (1999, September 5). Tiffany glass and other tales from the crypt. The New York Times, pp. 1, 5.

The page number of a newspaper article is preceded by "p." in a reference list citation. When an article appears on multiple pages, the page range is preceded by "pp." (for example, "pp. 4-6"). When an article appears on discontinuous pages, separate the page numbers with a comma (ex. "pp. 4, 8"). When a newspaper uses section letters in its page numbers, these should be included in your citation (ex. "p. A1", "pp. B1, B6").

More info



Encyclopedia Articles (Publication Manual, p. 205; Style Guide, p. 18)


Source

Reference List Citation

Library database with DOI

Miura, A. (2012). Human behavior with blogs. In Y Zheng (Ed.), Encyclopedia of cyber behavior. http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-0315-8

What is a DOI?
Some library databases, such as Academic Search Complete and PsycINFO, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for individual e-books. A DOI is a unique identifying number for an e-book. In the database record for an e-book, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "http://dx.doi.org/":

Digital Object Identifier

This link will allow a reader to link to doi.org for more information about the e-book.

However, the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012, p. 5) notes that it is still acceptable to use the older style of DOI format in a citation, for example:

Rostok, M. (2011). Android malware. In K. K. Frank (Ed.), Encyclopedia of mobile security. doi:10.3218/7853/8922.666.261

Library database without DOI

Smith, A. J. (2001). Child development. In B. Strickland (Ed.), The Gale encyclopedia of psychology. Retrieved from http://www.gale.cengage.com/

No DOI? Find the publisher's homepage.
Do a Web search (using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo!) to find the address of the homepage of the journal that published the article and include it in your citation. Please be aware, however, that the full text of encyclopedia may not actually be available at the jpublisher's homepage.

Cannot find the publisher's homepage?
In this case, do a Web search (using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo!) for the name of the database you are using (for example, "JSTOR" or "Business Source Complete") and use the address of its homepage.

More info



Book, Film and Product Reviews (Publication Manual, pp. 208-209)


Source

Reference List Citation

Library database

Grimes, W. (2006, December 13). Beyond Mandalay, the road to isolation and xenophobia [Review of the book The river of lost footsteps: Histories of Burma, by T. Myint-U]. New York Times, pp. E8, E10. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

An untitled book, film, or product review (for example, a review covering multiple works):

Guha, M. (2006). [Review of the books Fleeting pleasures: A history of intoxicants, by M. London and Dirty: A search for answers inside America's teenage drug epidemic, by M. Maran]. Journal of Mental Health, 15, 713-716. Retrieved from http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713432595

Follow the correct formatting for the type of publication (e.g. a newspaper, a scholarly journal) the review is taken from, including the DOI if one is available.

Free Web

Cohen, P. (2007, May 9). Love, honor, cherish, and buy [Review of the book One perfect day: The selling of the American wedding, by R. Mead]. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/09/books/09bride.html

More info



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Books (Publication Manual, pp. 202-204)


Source

Reference List Citation

Basic book

Jans, N. (1993). The last light breaking: Life among Alaska's Inupiat Eskimos. Anchorage, AK: Alaska Northwest Books.

Edited book

Miller, J., & Smith, T. (Eds.). (1996). Cape Cod stories: Tales from Cape Cod, Nantucket, and Martha's Vineyard. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books.

For a single editor, use "(Ed.)".

Books where the author and publisher are the same

American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Numbered edition other than the first

Arking, R. (2006). The biology of aging: Observations and principles (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Revised edition

Culliney, J. L. (2006). Islands in a far sea: The fate of nature in Hawai'i (Rev. ed.). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai'i Press.

Multi-volume set

Green, C. M. (1962-1963). Washington (Vols. 1-2). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

If volumes in a work or set are published in different years, give the range of years separated by a dash as above.

Chapter or article in an anthology

Eliot, T. S. (2001). Tradition and the individual talent. In V. B. Leitch (Ed.), The Norton anthology of theory and criticism (pp. 1092-1097). New York, NY: W. W. Norton. (Original work published 1920)

Note that the page numbers of an article or chapter are preceded by "pp." when citing it (for example, "pp. 25-50"). In cases where an article/chapter occupies a single page, the page is preceded by "p." (ex. "p. 4").

If an article has been reprinted from a source published earlier, give the original date of publication in the "original work" element of the citation as shown above (when using this element, the final period in a citation is omitted).

More info


Tips:

  • Cities, States and Countries: For U.S. cities, add the standard postal abbreviations for state (for example, "Chatham, MA"). Foreign cities should be followed by the name of their country (ex. "Brisbane, Australia").
  • Place of publication: Separate place of publication from publisher with a colon (for example "New York, NY: Zone Books"). If more than one city is given, list only the first.
  • Publisher names: "Co.", "Inc." and related abbreviations should not be included in citations (for example, "Ivan R. Dee, Inc." should be given as "Ivan R. Dee".)

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E-Books (Style Guide, pp. 15-18)

   

Source

Reference List Citation

Library database with DOI

Chaffe-Stengel, P., & Stengel, D. (2012). Working with sample data: Exploration and inference. http://dx.doi.org/10.4128/9781606492147

What is a DOI?
Some library databases, such as Academic Search Complete and PsycINFO, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for individual e-books. A DOI is a unique identifying number for an e-book. In the database record for an e-book, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "http://dx.doi.org/":

Digital Object Identifier

This link will allow a reader to link to doi.org for more information about the e-book. However, the APA Style Guide to Electronic References notes that it is still acceptable to use the older style of DOI format in a citation (see page 5), for example:

Conoloff, A. (2012). Salvaging the suburbs. doi:11.8870/6001/2122.442.261

Library e-book database without DOI

Miller, L. (2008). Careers for nature lovers & other outdoor types. Retrieved from http://www.ebscohost.com

No DOI? Use the URL for the database.
When a book has no DOI, write “Retrieved from” followed by the URL of the database. Use these URLs for library e-book databases:

  • EBSCO eBooks Collection:
    Retrieved from http://www.ebscohost.com
  • Safari Books Online:
    Retrieved from http://www.safaribooksonline.com
  • Books 24x7:
    Retrieved from http://library.books24x7.com

Book read on an e-book reader

Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The story of success [Kindle DX version].  Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com

After the book title, put in brackets the name of the e-book reader, with the word “version.” Follow that with the DOI. If the book has no DOI, write “Retrieved from” followed by the URL of the site from which you downloaded the e-book.

Free Web

Seton, E. T. (1911). The Arctic prairies: A canoe-journey of 2,000 miles in search of the caribou. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/6818

Book chapter from a library database (suggested format)

Quina, K., & Kanarian, M. A. (1988). Continuing education. In P. Bronstein & K. Quina (Eds.), Teaching a psychology of people: Resources for gender and sociocultural awareness (pp. 200-208). Retrieved from http://www.ebscohost.com/academic/psycinfo

When using just a chapter from a book the same rules apply regarding DOI or no DOI as listed above, depending on where the book was retrieved.

More info


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Web Sites (Style Guide, pp. 31-34)


Source

Reference List Citation

A specific page within a Web site

Sea Turtle Restoration Project. (2006). Threats to sea turtles. Retrieved from http://seaturtles.org/section.php?id=104

In-text Citation:
(Sea Turtle Restoration Project, 2006)

Entire Web site

If you refer to an entire Web site, you do not need to include an entry for it in your reference list, but must identify the source clearly in the text of your paper. For example:

The Sea Turtle Restoration Project homepage presents a wealth of compelling, well-researched information on the struggle to save the world's sea turtles from extinction (http://www.seaturtles.org).

More info

  • If you think that the content of a Web site will change over time, you can include the date that you viewed the cited information in your "retrieved from" line.
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.


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Online Classroom Materials


Source

Reference List Citation

A document in a UMUC online classroom

Whitford, D. (2006). Cross-curricular initiatives in NSCI170. Document posted in University of Maryland University College NSCI 170 6981 online classroom, archived at: http://campus.umuc.edu

No official APA format for citing online classroom materials exists - this is merely a recommended format to use in citing such documents.

More info



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Technical and Research Reports (Publication Manual, pp. 205-206; Style Guide, pp. 19-21)


Source

Reference List Citation

Free Web

U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2010, March). Information security: Concerted effort needed to consolidate and secure Internet connections at federal agencies (Publication No. GAO-10-237). Retrieved from http://www.gao.gov/assets/310/301876.pdf

In print

U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2010, March). Information security: Concerted effort needed to consolidate and secure Internet connections at federal agencies (Publication No. GAO-10-237). Washington, DC: Author.

When the author is also the publisher, the publisher's name should be listed as Author.

More info


Tip:

  • The element of the citation giving the publication or report number can be omitted if this information is not available for the source you're citing.

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Dissertations and Theses (Publication Manual, pp. 207-208; Style Guide, pp. 22-23)

Dissertations


Source

Reference List Citation

Dissertations and Theses database

Pecore, J. T. (2004). Sounding the spirit of Cambodia: The living tradition of Khmer music and dance-drama in a Washington, DC community (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3114720)

Note that a “Retrieved from” statement is used, giving the database name followed by the word “database.” Also, APA calls for the citation to end with a unique identifying number for the dissertation, labeling it “UMI No.” That number can be found in Dissertations and Theses database, listed in the item record as “Publication Number.”

Free Web

Caprette, C. L. (2005). Conquering the cold shudder: The origin and evolution of snake eyes (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/send-pdf.cgi?acc_num=osu1111184984

In print

Caprette, C. L. (2005). Conquering the cold shudder: The origin and evolution of snake eyes (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

More info



Master's Theses


Source

Reference List Citation

Dissertations and Theses database

Harzbecker, J. J. (1999). Life and death in Washington DC: An analysis of the Mortality Census data of 1850 (Master's thesis). Retrieved from Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1395513)

Note that a “Retrieved from” statement is used, giving the database name followed by the word “database.” Also, APA calls for the citation to end with a unique identifying number for the dissertation, labeling it “UMI No.” That number can be found in Dissertations and Theses database, listed in the item record as “Publication Number.”

Free Web

Angelova, A. N. (2004). Data pruning (Master's thesis). Retrieved from http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-05282004-000943

In print

Angelova, A. N. (2004). Data pruning (Master's thesis). California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

More info



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Images (Style Guide, p. 27)

Titled Image


Source

Reference List Citation

Library database

Rousseau, H. (1896). The ship in the storm [Painting]. Retrieved from Oxford Art Online database.

Free Web

Rousseau, H. (1896). The ship in the storm [Painting]. Retrieved from http://www.uwm.edu/~wash/rousseau.jpg

Image reproduced in a printed source

Rousseau, H. (1896). The ship in the storm [Painting]. Henri Rousseau: Jungles in Paris. By Claire Fresches et al. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art. 232.

The plate/image number (or, if this number is not available, the page number on which the image is printed) should follow the name of the publisher as shown.

More info



Untitled Image

Create a brief title for it and place it in brackets, unitalicized.

Source

Reference List Citation

Library database

Muybridge, E. [Photograph of a horse running]. (1887). Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.

Image reproduced in a printed source

Muybridge, E. [Photograph of a horse running]. (1887). River of shadows: Eadweard Muybridge and the technological wild West. By Rebecca Solnit. New York, NY: Viking. 52.

The plate/image number (or, if this number is not available, the page number on which the image is printed) should follow the name of the publisher as shown.

More info


Tips:

  • Medium: If known, the medium of the image should be placed in brackets as shown above, and the collection which owns the image included in your citation along with its location.
  • Institution locations: For U.S. cities, add the standard postal abbreviations for state (for example, "Chatham, MA"). Foreign cities should be followed by the name of their country (ex. "Brisbane, Australia").

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Interviews, E-mail Messages, and Other Personal Communications (Publication Manual, p. 179)


Source

Example

Personal communication

APA does not require that you cite personal communications (interviews you've conducted, e-mail messages, etc.) in your reference list. Instead, give an in-text citation only using the following model:bn 

Joe Smith (personal communication, November 18, 2006) informed me that the server had crashed several hours ago.

More info



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